Aus unseren Neuerwerbungen – Sprachen und Kulturen Asiens, Afrikas und Ozeaniens 2020.5

‚Is there not one among you who under­stands Egypt­ian?‘ The late Egypt­ian lan­guage: struc­ture of its gram­mar
Late Egypt­ian – the ver­nac­u­lar idiom of the time of the Rames­side pharaohs (14th through 12th cen­tu­ry BCE) – is a dis­tinct episode in the his­to­ry of the Egypt­ian-Cop­tic lan­guage. It is a vivid, fresh idiom, com­pared with the time­ho­noured Clas­si­cal Egypt­ian lan­guage of the hiero­glyph­ic texts. The vocab­u­lary used is to a large extent new, it is obvi­ous­ly pro­nounced dif­fer­ent­ly from the tra­di­tion­al lan­guage, and it is spelled in a char­ac­ter­is­tic way. The idiom also fol­lows new gram­mat­i­cal rules. Usu­al­ly it is described from a more his­tor­i­cal stand­point, on the back­ground of the old­er lan­guage, Mid­dle Egypt­ian. Here, how­ev­er, is an account of its struc­ture that is inde­pen­dent of the lan­guages‘ old­er phas­es. Suf­fi­cient space is giv­en to pho­net­ics and spelling, as well as mor­phol­o­gy and syn­tax (on all its lev­els). The books deals with claus­es of all sorts, like attribu­tive, cir­cum­stance and noun claus­es, nar­ra­tive & con­junc­tive claus­es as well as con­di­tion­al and tem­po­ral claus­es. The final part is devot­ed to the focal­is­ing con­struc­tions, so char­ac­ter­is­tic of Egypt­ian in gen­er­al.
The pre­sen­ta­tion of the gram­mar is illus­trat­ed by orig­i­nal text quo­ta­tions; they are ren­dered in hiero­glyphs, in tran­scrip­tion and in trans­la­tion.
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The seman­tics of silence in bib­li­cal Hebrew
In The Seman­tics of Silence in Bib­li­cal Hebrew, Son­ja Noll explores the many words in bib­li­cal Hebrew that refer to being silent, inves­ti­gat­ing how they are used in bib­li­cal texts, Dead Sea Scrolls, and Ben Sira. She also exam­ines the tra­di­tion of inter­pre­ta­tion for these words in the ear­ly ver­sions (Sep­tu­agint, Vul­gate, Tar­gum, Peshit­ta), mod­ern trans­la­tions, and stan­dard dic­tio­nar­ies, reveal­ing that mean­ings are not always straight­for­ward and that addi­tion­al work is need­ed in bib­li­cal seman­tics and lex­i­cog­ra­phy. The tra­di­tion­al approach to com­par­a­tive Semit­ics, with its over-sim­plis­tic assump­tion of seman­tic equiv­a­lence in cog­nates, is also chal­lenged. The sur­pris­ing con­clu­sion of the work is that there is no sin­gle con­cept of silence in the bib­li­cal world; rather, it spans mul­ti­ple seman­tic fields.
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