Open-Access-Bücher zur Slavistik

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Explaining Russian-German code-mixing: A usage-based approach

Niko­lay Haki­mov |

The study of gram­mat­i­cal vari­a­tion in lan­guage mix­ing has been at the core of research into bilin­gual lan­guage prac­tices. Although var­i­ous moti­va­tions have been pro­posed in the lit­er­a­ture to account for pos­si­ble mix­ing pat­terns, some of them are either con­tro­ver­sial, or remain untest­ed. Lit­tle is still known about whether and how fre­quen­cy of use of lin­guis­tic ele­ments can con­tribute to the pat­tern­ing of bilin­gual talk. This book is the first to sys­tem­at­i­cal­ly explore the fac­tor usage fre­quen­cy in a cor­pus of bilin­gual speech. The two aims are (i) to describe and ana­lyze the vari­a­tion in mix­ing pat­terns in the speech of Rus­sia Ger­man ado­les­cents and young adults in Ger­many, and (ii) to pro­pose and test usage-based expla­na­tions of vari­a­tion in mix­ing pat­terns in three mor­phosyn­tac­tic con­texts: the adjec­tive-mod­i­fied noun phrase, the prepo­si­tion­al phrase, and the plur­al mark­ing of Ger­man noun inser­tions in bilin­gual sen­tences. In these con­texts, Ger­man noun inser­tions com­bine with either Russ­ian or Ger­man words and gram­mat­i­cal mark­ers, thus yield­ing mixed bilin­gual and Ger­man mono­lin­gual con­stituents in oth­er­wise Russ­ian sen­tences, the lat­ter also labelled as embed­ded-lan­guage islands. The results sug­gest that the fre­quen­cy with which words are used togeth­er medi­ates the dis­tri­b­u­tion of mix­ing pat­terns in each of the exam­ined con­texts. The dif­fer­ing impacts of co-occur­rence fre­quen­cy are attrib­uted to the dis­tri­b­u­tion­al and seman­tic specifics of the ana­lyzed mor­phosyn­tac­tic con­fig­u­ra­tions. Lex­i­cal fre­quen­cy has been found to be anoth­er impor­tant deter­mi­nant in this vari­a­tion. Oth­er fac­tors include recen­cy, or lex­i­cal prim­ing, in dis­course in the case of prepo­si­tion­al phras­es, and phono­log­i­cal and struc­tur­al sim­i­lar­i­ties and dif­fer­ences in the inflec­tion­al sys­tems of the con­tact lan­guages in the case of plur­al mark­ing.

„So, Sie meinen also, es gibt ihn nicht?“ – Der Teufel in der russischen Literatur

Nor­bert P. Franz | &

Der Teufel ist in der rus­sis­chen Lit­er­atur vielfach dargestellt wor­den, und seine Bilder und Funk­tio­nen ändern sich durch die Jahrhun­derte – in Entsprechung zum Wan­del der Epochen und lit­er­arischen Mod­en. In den Teufelsvorstel­lun­gen mis­chen sich volk­stüm­lich ani­mistis­che Ele­mente mit den bib­lis­chen Konzepten von Teufeln und Dämo­nen. Aus bei­den Reser­voirs schöpft die Lit­er­atur, die z. T. die naive Teufels­gläu­bigkeit verspot­tet, die sich aufgek­lärt geben­den Skep­tik­er aber auch gerne mit Teufelser­schei­n­un­gen schreckt. Der Teufel ist ein zen­trales Motiv der rus­sis­chen Lit­er­atur, dessen Geschichte nachzuerzählen, einen ganz zen­tralen Strang der rus­sis­chen Lit­er­atur nachzuerzählen heißt – sub specie dia­boli.
Auch wenn er schon lange vor den Roman­tik­ern – allen voran Niko­laj Gogol’ – einen promi­nen­ten Platz in der rus­sis­chen Lit­er­atur inne hat­te, mis­chen sich seit­dem volk­stüm­liche Vorstel­lun­gen mit dem bib­lis­chen Erbe. Im Volk sind Teufelsvorstel­lun­gen bis heute pop­ulär, die gebilde­ten Schicht­en zeigen sich eher skep­tisch, weshalb die real­is­tis­che Lit­er­atur – mit der großen Aus­nahme Fedor Dos­to­evskij – den Teufel eher mied, die Mod­ernisten gestal­teten ihn dafür umso lieber. Einen Höhep­unkt erre­icht er bei Michail Bul­gakov. Zeitgenossen fehlt häu­fig der religiöse Sub­text.

Handbook of Polish, Czech and Slovak Holocaust Fiction: Works and Contexts

Elisa-Maria Hiemer, Jiří Holý, Aga­ta Fir­lej & Hana Nicht­burg­erová (Hrsg.) |

The Hand­book of Pol­ish, Czech, and Slo­vak Holo­caust Fic­tion aims to increase the vis­i­bil­i­ty and show the ver­sa­til­i­ty of works from East-Cen­tral Euro­pean coun­tries. It is the first ency­clo­pe­dic work to bridge the gap between the lit­er­ary pro­duc­tion of coun­tries that are con­sid­ered to be main sites of the Holo­caust and their recog­ni­tion in inter­na­tion­al aca­d­e­m­ic and pub­lic dis­course. It con­tains over 100 entries offer­ing not only facts about the con­tent and motifs but also point­ing out the char­ac­ter­is­tic fic­tion­al fea­tures of each work and its mean­ing for aca­d­e­m­ic dis­course and wider recep­tion in the coun­try of ori­gin and abroad.

The pub­li­ca­tion will appeal to the aca­d­e­m­ic and broad­er pub­lic inter­est­ed in the rep­re­sen­ta­tion of the Holo­caust, anti-Semi­tism, and World War II in lit­er­a­ture and the arts. Besides prose, it also con­sid­ers poet­ry and the­atri­cal plays from 1943 through 2018. An intro­duc­tion to the his­tor­i­cal events and cul­tur­al devel­op­ments in Poland, Czecho­slo­va­kia, Czech, and Slo­vak Repub­lic, and their impact on the artis­tic out­put helps to con­tex­tu­alise the motif changes and fic­tion­al strate­gies that authors have been apply­ing for decades.

The pub­li­ca­tion is the result of long-term schol­ar­ly coop­er­a­tion of spe­cial­ists from four coun­tries and sev­er­al dozen aca­d­e­m­ic cen­tres.

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